Question: There are various commonly used protocols for internet data transmission. which of the following terms is used for the set of protocols which form the internet protocol suite, which organizes the link, transport, internet and application layers of communication over the internet.
Explanation: The set of protocols that form the Internet Protocol Suite, which organizes the link, transport, internet, and application layers of communication over the internet, is commonly referred to as TCP/IP. TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), which are two of the core protocols in this suite.
The TCP/IP model, also known as the Internet Protocol Suite, is a framework that enables communication between different devices over the internet. The model consists of four layers, each with its own specific set of protocols. Here’s a step-by-step explanation of how data transmission works in the TCP/IP model:
- Application Layer: This is the topmost layer in the TCP/IP model, where the user interacts with the network through applications like web browsers, email clients, or file sharing programs. Protocols in this layer, such as HTTP, FTP, and SMTP, are responsible for formatting and presenting data in a way that both the sender and receiver applications can understand.
- Transport Layer: At this layer, the data from the application layer is segmented and prepared for transmission. The two primary protocols used in this layer are TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol). TCP ensures reliable, ordered, and error-checked delivery of data by establishing a connection between the sender and receiver. It breaks the data into segments, numbers them, and manages retransmission of lost or corrupted segments. UDP, on the other hand, is a connectionless protocol that sends data without establishing a connection or ensuring data integrity, making it faster but less reliable than TCP.
- Internet Layer: The main responsibility of this layer is to route data packets from the source to the destination across the internet. The primary protocol in this layer is the Internet Protocol (IP). IP is responsible for addressing and routing the data packets. It assigns a unique IP address to each device connected to the network, allowing routers to determine the best path for forwarding the packets to the destination. Two versions of IP are in use: IPv4 and IPv6.
- Link Layer (also known as Network Interface Layer): This is the lowest layer in the TCP/IP model, responsible for the actual physical or logical connection between devices. The data from the internet layer is encapsulated into frames and transmitted over the physical medium, such as Ethernet, Wi-Fi, or other network types. Protocols in this layer, like ARP (Address Resolution Protocol), are responsible for mapping IP addresses to the physical addresses (MAC addresses) of devices on the local network.
So, in summary, the data transmission process in the TCP/IP model involves:
- Formatting and preparing data at the Application Layer.
- Segmenting and ensuring reliable/error-checked delivery at the Transport Layer.
- Addressing and routing data packets at the Internet Layer.
- Encapsulating data into frames and transmitting over the physical medium at the Link Layer.
This layered approach allows for flexibility and adaptability, as each layer can be modified or updated independently without affecting the others.