Question: There are various commonly used protocols for internet data transmission. which of the following terms is used for the set of protocols which form the internet protocol suite, which organizes the link, transport, internet and application layers of communication over the internet.
Explanation: The set of protocols that form the Internet Protocol Suite, which organizes the link, transport, internet, and application layers of communication over the internet, is commonly referred to as TCP/IP. TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), which are two of the core protocols in this suite.
The TCP/IP model, also known as the Internet Protocol Suite, is a framework that enables communication between different devices over the internet. The model consists of four layers, each with its own specific set of protocols. Here’s a step-by-step explanation of how data transmission works in the TCP/IP model:
Application Layer: Positioned at the pinnacle of the TCP/IP model, the Application Layer facilitates user interaction with the network via applications like web browsers, email clients, and file-sharing programs. Within this layer, protocols such as HTTP, FTP, and SMTP play a pivotal role in structuring and displaying data in a manner comprehensible to both the transmitting and receiving applications.
- Transport Layer: Within this stratum, data originating from the application layer undergoes segmentation and preparation for transmission. The Transport Layer primarily relies on two key protocols: TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol). TCP guarantees the dependable, sequential, and error-checked conveyance of data by instituting a connection between the sender and recipient. It dissects the data into segments, assigns numerical identifiers, and orchestrates the retransmission of segments lost or compromised during transit. In contrast, UDP operates as a connectionless protocol, expeditiously transmitting data without establishing a connection or ensuring data integrity. This attribute renders UDP faster, albeit less reliable compared to TCP.
- Internet Layer: The main responsibility of this layer is to route data packets from the source to the destination across the internet. The primary protocol in this layer is the Internet Protocol (IP). IP is responsible for addressing and routing the data packets. It assigns a unique IP address to each device connected to the network, allowing routers to determine the best path for forwarding the packets to the destination. Two versions of IP are in use: IPv4 and IPv6.
- Link Layer (also known as Network Interface Layer): This is the lowest layer in the TCP/IP model, responsible for the actual physical or logical connection between devices. The data from the internet layer is encapsulated into frames and transmitted over the physical medium, such as Ethernet, Wi-Fi, or other network types. Protocols in this layer, like ARP (Address Resolution Protocol), are responsible for mapping IP addresses to the physical addresses (MAC addresses) of devices on the local network.
So, in summary, the data transmission process in the TCP/IP model involves:
- Formatting and preparing data at the Application Layer.
- Segmenting and ensuring reliable/error-checked delivery at the Transport Layer.
- Addressing and routing data packets at the Internet Layer.
- Encapsulating data into frames and transmitting over the physical medium at the Link Layer.
This layered approach allows for flexibility and adaptability, as each layer can be modified or updated independently without affecting the others.